REVITALIZING THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION WITHIN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA
Agus Hasan Bashori
Globalization has brought negative impacts toward Islamic education. Some of the impacts include the fading of Islamic identity or character due to the unstoppable information flow, the widespread western culture to scrape Islamic culture, individualism that breaking down ukhuwah, consumerism which has killed creativity owned by young generation and secularism as well as liberalism which has shaken the foundation of faith (iman). Therefore, in order to strengthen the resistance and competitiveness of Islamic education, the writer has seen the need to revitalize the concept of Islamic science within the Islamic education. Thus the research questions selected were how is the concept of science in Islam? Why does the concept of science in Islam must be revitalized? This article is aimed to describe the concept of Islamic science and the revitalization within Islamic education. This research used descriptive qualitative method conducted through literature review and document analysis. As a result, the writer has found the evidence of brittleness of Islamic science concept in Curriculum 2013. This research will describe Islamic Science concept in 6 variables: the definition of science, source of science, purpose of science, different types of science, level of science and the concept of sanad of science. This concept of science needs to be revitalized to boost the resistance and competitiveness of Islamic education institution within this globalization era.
Globalization has created shifting and changes in every fields in this world, including the education field, both in positive and negative ways. Research findings by Ezad Azraai Jasmari has shown three major positive impacts which are: the transformation of curriculum, teaching style and method, as well as the usage of digital practice in Islamic Education. Meanwhile, some of the negative impact is the fading of Islamic identity or character, due to the unstoppable information flow, the widespreading western culture that the widespreading western culture to scrape Islamic culture, individualism that breaking down ukhuwah, consumerism which has killed creativity owned by young generation and secularism as well as liberalism which has shaken the foundation of faith (iman).
According to M. Ihsan Dacholfany “Globalization is neither friend nor foe for Islamic education, instead it is more a dinamizator. When Islamic education has taken anti-global position, then it will be stagnated and Islamic education will suffer from intellectual hindrance. On the contrary, when Islamic education was drown under globalization, the identity of Islam as an education process basis will be powerlessly overpowered”.
Therefore, to strengthen the resistance and competitiveness of Islamic education, the writer has seen the need to revitalize the concept of Islamic science within Islamic education including that to be taught in Islamic boarding houses (pesantren) to improve resistance so that Muslim people can play active role with its shibghah islamiyah in this highly competitive globalization era. Thus the research questions selected were how is the concept of science in Islam? Why does the concept of science in Islam must be revitalized?
This article is aimed to describe the concept of Islamic education and its revitalization within Islamic education.
This research used descriptive qualitative method, through literature review and document analysis.
Understanding the Concept of Science in Islam
This Islamic concept of science is derived from the word Al-’Ilm from Qur’an, enriched with the explanation from hadith, as well as the explanation from the ulama especially Imam Syafi’i. In Qur’an itself, the word Al ‘ilm and its derivation are mentioned for 778 times. In specific, Al ‘ilm (mu’arraf with alif lam) is mentioned 28 times, its nakirah form (‘Ilm) is mentioned 237 times including those with the pronunciation “bighairi ‘ilm” which is mentioned 12 times.
Meanwhile, the term of al-‘Ilmu is mentioned even more in Nabawi hadiths. Using the aid of Maktabah Syamilah we will recognize roughly that the term of al-‘Ilm in Kutub al-Sittah (Shahih Bukhari, Shahih Muslim, Sunan Daud, Sunan Turmudzi, Sunan Nasâi and Sunan Ibn Majah) is mentioned more than 1000 times. It is mentioned for 441 times in al-Umm by Imam Al-Syafi’i. Therefore our research finding regarding the concept of Islamic science through the term al-‘Ilmu should be divided into 6 variables as mentioned below:
Definition of Science
Science is knowing and recognizing something as it is. Therefore science can be defined as any knowledge (ma’rifat) which is based on the dalil or any provable knowledge, according to its fields; hissiyyât is using logical empirical criteria, ‘aqliyyât is using rational criteria, and sam’iyyât (naqliyat) is using shar’i dalil.
All useful knowledge for human being and as long as it is not contradictory with the guidance of Prophet Muhammad PBUH, then it is included as a part of Islam. In this case, Syaikh Abdurrahman Al-Nashir Al-Sa’di has written a book entitled A- Dalâil A- Qur`âniyyah Fi Anna Al-Ulûm wa Al- A’mâl Al-Nâfi’ah Al-‘Ashriyyah Dâkhilah Fi Al-Din Al-Islami.
Related to this, Imam Al-Syafi’I has stated:
Learn, because one was not born as a knowledgeable (alim) human being, and knowledgeable person is not alike with the unknowledgeable Whoever not eager to gulp the bitterness of learning process, then he will swallow the humiliation of stupidity for all his life. Whoever lost the time of learning in his younger time, then recite takbir four times for his death. For the sake of Allah, the self-esteem of a young man is reflected by his knowledge and behavior, if either one is missing, then he would lost his self-esteem.
Source of Science
The source of this useful science is Allah, through His revelation, through His instruction to memorize, to be pious, to think (including to think about al-kaun), to read, to observe, to listen, to meditate, to imitate, to learn, to practice, to research, and to create. Therefore Allah has instructed human to pray for Him to bestow more useful science.
Regarding science, Imam Al-Syafi’i has stated:
Allah has given the word to all His creatures in Al-Qur’an that they will not have knowledge unless as much as what He has given to them. He said: “وَاللَّهُ أَخْرَجَكُمْ مِنْ بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا” (Allah has allowed you to be born from your mother’s womb in the condition of not knowing). Then Allah has taught them with knowledge bestowed to them and hence they were instructed to limit themselves within that knowledge.
Imam Al-Syafi’i rahimahullah emphasized that the source of religious knowledge were from two different roots ushûl and furû’, ushûl sourced from Al-Qur’an, Al-Sunnah, and Ijma’. Meanwhile the furû’ is qiyas or ijtihad. Ijtihad also includes understanding with “lisân al-‘Arab and understanding the sayings from ulama”, tafakkur and tadabbur. Meanwhile, the worldly science should be attained through the nature, by researching, practicing, experimenting, experiencing and history. Some of this knowledge mastered by him is medicine, horse riding, and archery.
The purpose of science is to know Allah, to believe in Him, and to obey Him, fulfilling His instruction, and to build civilization in order to get happiness both in this life and the afterlife. Imam Al-Syafi’I explained that the purpose of people to learn science is to recognize the hidayah, to distinguish between halal and haram, to maintain the deeds and behavior (akhlak), to uphold justice, to embrace piety and create happiness. Imam Syafi’i stated:
If the knowledge of a man does not improve the hidayah to his heart, justice to his way of life, and kindness to his behavior, then give him a good word that Allah will punish him, and he shall be treated as the people who worship other gods. In fact, a faqih (Fiqih expert) is based on his deeds, not his words or written examples
فَلَوْلَا الْعِلْمُ مَا سَعَدَتْ رِجَالٌ وَلَا عُرِفَ الْحَلَالُ وَلَا الْحَرَامُ
“Suppose that science does not exist, people will not be happy and halal-haram could be hardly distinguished”
Imam Syafi’i also emphasized that:
Human being are varied in their level of knowledge. Their place in science is the same as their level of how deep their mastering the knowledge. Thus, the obligation of human as science learner is to put their maximum effort to improve their knowledge, to be patient to face any obstacles, to be sincere in their intention to learn His knowledge both nash and istinbath, and to be truly loving in order to obtain His mercy and blessings. Whoever obtains the laws bestowed by Allah in His book, either nash or istidlal, and being guided by Allah to put in words and in deeds of the knowledge, then he is lucky to gain eminency in his deen and dunya, and may doubts be gone from him and blessings be enlightened in his heart, and within his religion he is always bestowed the Imamah (leadership).
In al-Risâlah book, Imam Al-Syâfi’i has asked Allah to be given understanding toward His Holy Book, as well as to His Prophet Sunnah, and to the sayings and deeds which allow him to fulfill His rights, and to gain overflowing ibadah nafilah.
Different Types of Science
Definition of the term Al-‘Ilm in Al-Qur’an—which is complimented by Allah, instructed by Allah, leveraged by Allah—refers to the Islamic Science or Shar’i science which is based on Al-Qur’an and Al-Sunnah, also includes all useful science and knowledge for human, as long as it is not contradictory with Islam. Therefore, the highest knowledge is Shar’I knowledge revealed by Allah the Almighty and The Most Knowledgeable, to His Prophet Muhammad PBUH, and to be delivered to the human using mutawatir sanad and then the appropriate sanad ahad.
This is called hidayah knowledge of which is why the Prophets were sent and the holy books were revealed. The science and knowledge that will bring people to the perfection of human creation, that will maintain human purity and develop their potential both as the pious servant of Allah and to be useful for the human being and the universe, as well as to gain true and eternal happiness in the afterlife.
In addition, the term of “science” also applies to any other knowledge considered as “science” by the non-muslim community (despite its contradicting the religion of Allah). Allah still refers the knowledge as al-‘ilm as the form of tahakkum (taubikh, to denounce it), as Allah explained that it is a deviant and mischievous knowledge called zhan and jahl. Therefore, the mischievous science is what has been considered as haram by Allah, moreover when it leads to shirk and kufr such as magic and astrology.
Imam Al-Syafi’i explained that there are two distinguished sciences; the science which is related to worldly benefit and the science related to the afterlife benefit. Imam Al-Syafi’i stated:
مَنْ أَرَادَ الدُّنْيَا فَعَلَيْهِ بِالْعِلْمِ وَمَنْ أَرَادَ الْآخِرَةَ فَعَلَيْهِ بِالْعِلْمِ
“Whoever wishes for the world, one should gain the knowledge, an whoever wishes for the afterlife, one should gain the knowledge.”
The science to bring both worldly and afterlife benefit is religious science, while the mere worldly science only gives worldly benefit. Religious science during Imam Al-Syafi’I period has been widely developed that Imam Al-Syafi’I himself had taken role in developing the knowledge. At first, he stayed in a hinterland together with Hudzail tribe for 7 years to study poetry, courtesy, akhbar and the daily life or Arabians. Then he moved to Kuttâb, where he studied Al-Qur’an, translation (tafsir), fiqih, hadith, language, and human history.
Arabic language is included into religious science as it is a tool to understand the religion. Therefore Muhammad ibn Binti al-Al-Syafi’i mentioned about his grandfather, Imam Al-Syafi’I who studied Arabic and daily life of Arabians (history). He said: “I never intend to learn it except as a tool to comprehend fiqh (religion)”. Accordingly, muslim people should learn Arabic as much as possible to be able to recite the vow of lâ ilâha illallah wa anna Muhammadan Rasulullah, to read Al-Qur’an, to recite obligatory dzikr such as takbir, tasbih, tasyahhud, and etc. While more to that, mastering Arabic language which has been used as the main language in the concluding holy book of the Prophets and Messenger is way better for the Muslim.
Various kinds of science existed during Imam Al-Syafi’i period as been mentioned in his books are interpretation and translation, sirah science, language, Sunnah and Holy Books, Maghazi, Hisab, knowledge about magic, knowledge about Anbar, Atsar, Ikhtilaf, Nash and Qiyas, logic (ma’qul), madzhab, Israilliyat, astrology, hadith, medical, administration, etc.
He himself developed the sciences by pioneering the establishment of ushûl fikih and ushûl hadits through his book al-Risâlah. The book was discussing both wâhid and hujjah hadiths in it, including the requirements of valid hadiths, the validation of narrators and the rejection of invalid hadiths. He developed fiqh through his book al-Umm, and developed mukhtalaf al-hadits through the book Ikhtilâf al-Hadîts.
Worldly science had also been grown in Imam Al-Syafi’i period including shinâ’ah (agriculture, architecture, crafting, tailoring), trade, medical, archery, astronomy, calculation (hisab), philosophy, and ideology. Imam Al-Syafi’I himself, besides being a pioneer in religious sciences and Arabic literature, also mastered medical science as well as an expert of psychic science, in addition to his excellence in horsing and archery. Imam Al-Syafi’i practiced archery diligently under the bright sun shine at noon until he mastered it, with the accuracy of 10 arrows right hitting 10 targets. He was also able to jump on and ride on the speeding horse.
Imam al-Syâfi’i has explained some of the benefit of either religious science or worldly science:
Barang siapa belajar al-Qur`an maka agung nilainya, barang siapa mempelajari fikih maka mulia kedudukannya, barang siapa belajar bahasa maka lembut perangainya, barang siapa belajar ilmu hitung maka kuat pendapatnya, barang siapa menulis hadits maka kuat hujjahnya, dan barang siapa tidak melindungi dirinya maka tidak bermanfaat ilmunya.
Regarding the truth within religion, Imam Al-Syafi’i has highlighted:
وَلَا يَكُونُ الْحَقُّ مَعْلُومًا إلَّا عَنْ اللَّهِ نَصًّا أَوْ دَلَالَةً مِنْ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهَ الْحَقَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ ثُمَّ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
“The real truth is not known by anyone besides Allah in the form of nash (statement) or dalâlah (direction) from Allah. Allah has stated the truth in His holy book as well as in His Prophet’s PBUH sunnah.”
He also said that “Forever, not a single person may distinguish halal ro haram matter unless he took direction from the knowledge, of which the direction was sourced from al-khabar; which is the holy book, or hadiths, or ijma’ or kiyas”. . Furthermore he added:
بَلْ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ الرَّجُلَ يَمْشِي عَلَى الْمَاءِ، وَيَطِيْرُ فِي الْهَوَاءِ، فَلَا تَغْتَرُّوا بِهِ، حَتَّى تَعْرِضُوْا أَمْرَهُ عَلَى الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ.
“Even, when one day you might see people walking on the water or flying in the air, never be fooled until you had referred this matter to Al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah”.
Imam Al-Syafi’I also mentioned that: “When the fiqh experts who carry out their knowledge are not the representing Allah, then Allah has no representatives. He described that among the knowledge, there are some which is haram to be learned or practiced such as magic, the books of ‘ajam which teaches shirk or kufr. Imam Al-Syafi’I himself hates theology (religious ideology science merely built with logic and philosophy) and he forbade his students to study theology, he and Imam Malik did not accept any witnesses from the Mu’tazilah.
Levels of Science
The hierarchy of science, from various kinds of useful knowledge, the highest one is what has been revealed by Allah to His Prophet Muhammad PBUH. This science is a knowledge that treats the human being as it is, leads the human to its creator, and to its happiness in the world and the afterlife. This is called the religious science, of which comes after is the worldly science (kauni) gained by applying intellectual assets such as medical and pure sciences. The lowest level in this hierarchy is occupied by skill and simple handicrafts. Viewed from its benefit, the highest level is adyân, then abdân and diwân (administration).
Imam Al-Syafi’i argued that:
الْعُلُوْمُ ثَلَاثَةٌ: عِلْمُ الْأَبْدَانِ، وَعِلْمُ الْأَدْيَانِ، وَعِلْمُ الدِّيْوَانِ، فَأَمَّا عِلْمُ الْأَبْدَانِ فَالطِّبُّ، وَأَمَّا عِلْمُ الْأَدْيَانِ فَالْفِقْهُ، وَأَمَّا عِلْمُ الدِّيْوَانِ فَاْلحِسَابُ
There are three kinds of science: physical science, religious science, and administration science. Meanwhile the physical science refers to medical, religious science refers to fiqh (I’tiqadi and amali), while administration science relates to calculation.
Imam Al-Syafi’i said that “I didn’t find any science or knowledge after the halal and haram (Al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah) which is more important than medical. However, the scribes had overpowered us in this field”. Harmalah stated that Imam Al-Syafi’I was so ambitious in learning the science which was wasted by the Muslim community, the medical science. He said: They waste one third of this knowledge and give it up to the Jews or Christian.” However, mental doctor is more valid than physical doctor, mental health is more important and more expensive than physical health. The religious science itself consists of obligatory knowledge, which is basic knowledge (ushûl) and kiyas (furû’ and ijtihat), and every beneficial knowledge.
There are two kinds of science: ‘ammah (public, dedicated for everyone, fardhu ‘ain, and mutawatir), which means it is an obligatory for all people to know. Some of the knowledge are 5 times a day prayer, Ramadhan fasting, Hajj to Ka’bah in Mecca for those who can afford it, and other similar things which has been instructed for Muslim people and for them to obey. This category of science is manshûsh (directly mentioned in Al-Qur’an and known generally by all Muslim, quoted by one generation from another until the time of Rasulullah PBUH, they did not come to dispute in narrating or implementing the obligation). Then, furû’ al-farâidh and special regulations which was not mentioned in Al-Qur’an, if it existed, it is mentioned in khabar khâshshah not khabar ‘âmmah, matters like these should be treated by takwil and to be understood using kiyas, therefore this is not obligatory unlike the first one, it might be kifayah, nafilah or fadhilah.
The Concept of Sanad
Islamic science (naqli) was delivered to the Muslim through Isnad, and this Sanad science is the specialty of Muslim. The sanad of Islamic science is from Allah and then to Jibril who brought it to Rasulullah Muhammad PBUH, which was then inherited to his colleagues who delivered it to the people. The previous Muslim community did not really pay attention to the sanad and they did not rely on appropriate sanad in embracing their religion, and it resulted in tahrîf (distortion) within their holy books.
Literally sanad means support (mu’tamad). While the verb sanada or asnada means getting up (sha’ada wa raqâ).
Terminologically, sanad according to the hadith experts is:
اَلطَّرِيْقٌ اْلمُوْصِلُ إِلَي الْمَتْنِ
“The means to deliver to the matan”.
The means are defined as:
سِلْسِلَةُ الرُّوَاةِ الَّذِيْنَ نَقَلُوْا الحَدِيْثَ [ بِالتَّسَلْسُلِ، وَاحِداً عَنِ الْآخَرِ] عَنْ مَصْدَرِهِ الْأَوَّلِ أَيْ عَنْ رَسُوْلِ الله (صلى الله عليه وسلم) أَوْ عَمَّنْ هُوَ دُوْنَهُ مِنْ صَحَابِيٍّ أَوْ تَابِعِيٍّ
“The genealogy (sequence) of the narrators who quoted hadiths (in a sequential way, from one person to another) from the first source which is Rasulullah PBUH or the person closest to him who are his colleagues or Tabi’in”.
On the other hand, Matan literally means: “مَتْنُ الشَّيْءِ صَلْبُهُ” (matan means something basically hard), “مَاتَنَهُ: بَاعَدَهُ فِي الْغَايَةِ” (He brought it far to his purpose).
Terminologically, proposed by Badruddin ibn Jama’ah:
هُوَ مَا يَنْتَهِي إِلَيْهِ غَايَةُ السَّنَدِ مِنَ اْلكَلَامِ
“Is a saying (news) reached by the end of sanad”.
Then the word Isnad literally is the noun formed from asnada which means to rely on. Terminologically explained by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani:
الإِسْنَادُ: حِكَايَةُ طَرِيْقِ الْمَتْنِ
“Isnâd is the history (story) of matan”. The meaning of history is to tell the story of transmission back to its very first source.
The hadith experts were highly attentive to the Isnâd, as it is the way to know hadiths of Muhammad PBUH, which is the second most absolute source of Islam after Al-Qur’an. By going through the narrators, the validity of the hadiths shall be known and shall be distinguished between the righteous (shahih) and not shahih. Mentioned by the ulama that Isnâd makes half of the hadith itself, because hadith consists of “Isnâd dan matan”.
Allah the Almighty and Muhammad PBUH has ordered us to recognize the real person or news and to follow after it, as well as recognizing the distorted (fasiq) one and to avoid it. Hereafter are some dalil related to sanad in Islam:
- Allah says in Surah al-Taubah verse 119:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَكُونُوا مَعَ الصَّادِقِينَ
- Allah says in Surah al-Hujurat verse 6:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَنْ تُصِيبُوا قَوْماً بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ
- Prophet Muhammad PBUH said:
مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَيَّ مُتَعَمِّداً فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ.
- Prophet Muhammad PBUH said
مَنْ حَدَّثَ عَنِّي بِحَدِيْثٍ يُرَى أنَّهُ كَذِبٌ فَهُوَ أحَدُ الكَاذِبِيْنِ
- Prophet Muhammad PBUH had given good news for those delivering hadith appropriately:
نَضَّرَ اللَّهُ امْرَأً سَمِعَ مِنَّا حَدِيثًا، فَحَفِظَهُ حَتَّى يُبَلِّغَهُ، فَرُبَّ حَامِلِ فِقْهٍ إِلَى مَنْ هُوَ أَفْقَهُ مِنْهُ، وَرُبَّ حَامِلِ فِقْهٍ لَيْسَ بِفَقِيهٍ
Abu Bakal al-Shiddiq was the first person who applied this Isnâd concept –among the colleagues of Prophet Muhammad PBUH, to the fasiq (the heathen people from Makkah) when they told him: Your companion were talking endlessly until he came with falsehood! Abu Bakar answered: Impossible. What was it? They said: He admitted that he had gone through Isra’ to Baitul Maqdis within a night. Then Abu Bakar responded
إِنْ كَانَ قَالَ ذَلِكَ فَقَدْ صَدَقَ
“If he (Prophet Muhammad PBUH) truly said the way you said, then he said the truth” Imam Suyuthi added:
وَإِنَّا لَنُصَدِّقُهُ فِيمَا هُوَ أبعَدُ مِنْ هَذَا
“We truly agreed to him in matters more than that”.
Then this Isnâd concept was applied within the Islam society when the heresy (bid’ah) communities appeared during 35 H, after the murder of Caliphate Usman r.a. Muhammad ibn Sirin (w. 110 H) told:
لَمْ يَكُوْنُوْا يَسْأَلُوْنَ عَنِ اْلإِسْنَادِ، فَلَمَّا وَقَعَتِ اْلفِتْنَةُ قَالُوا: سَمُّوا لَنَا رِجَالَكُمْ، فَيُنْظَرُ إِلَى أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ فَيُؤْخَذُ حَدِيْثُهُمْ، وَيُنظَرُ إِلَى أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ فَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ حَدِيْثُهُمْ.
It shows that when hadith spread among the Companions of Muhammad PBUH, they would tell each other and there was no need for them to ask for the isnad, as all the companions were ‘udûl (plural form of ‘âdil which means shahih or reliable/ valid) according to nash frpm Allah, Sunnah and Ijma’.
Imam Al-Syâfi’i said:
مَن لَمْ يَسْأَلْ مِنْ أَيْنَ؟ فَهُوَ كَحَاطِبِ لَيْلٍ يَحْمِلُ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ حِزْمَةَ حَطَبٍ، فَلَعَلَّ فِيْهَا أَفْعَى تَلْدَغُهُ.
“Whoever didn’t ask where is it from? He is similar to firewood seekers in the night, mounting a bunch of firewood on his back, not knowing that there might be a snake ready to peck at any time inside it”.
When faced to hadiths that he never had encountered before, Imam Al-Syâfi’i always said: “Prove its validity (tsubût) first for me to follow it”. Imam Al-Syâfi’i said:
أَنْ الْحَدِيثَ إذَا رَوَاهُ الثِّقَاتُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – فَذَلِكَ ثُبُوتُه
“If the hadith was narrated by the tsiqah people around Rasulullah PBUH, it proves the validity (tsubût).”
Meanwhile the requirements for a hadith to be hujjah had been listed by Imam al-Syâfi’i in al-Risalah. Imam Nawawi stated: “Basic principle derived from Al-Syâfi’i is that if the hadith is valid, it is within his madzhab”. This fact strengthens the worthlessness of hadith with invalid sanad, either based on its ushûl or furû’. Imam Al-Syâfi’i said: If the hadith is valid, then (take the hadith, and) throw my madzhab against the wall. This sanad knowledge belongs to the hadith experts inheriting the knowledge from Prophet Muhammad PBUH, that Imam Al-Syâfi’i defended:
When you find an ashhâb al-hadîts which looks as if he is the companion of Rasulullah PBUH, may Allah bestow him goodness. They have nurtured this core of knowledge for us and they have merit upon us.
Afterwards, Imam Al-Syâfi’i stated: “All these kinds of science (religious) besides Al-Qur’an had taken our time, except the one from hadiths and fiqh in religion. Science is what contains haddatsanâ inside it (it has sanad), others than that came from the satan.” Al-Husain ibn Ali al-Karâbisi said: “Imam Al-Syâfi’i mentioned: Any person speaking based on Al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah means he is serious, other than that are all hadzayân (delirium)”. Imam Buwaithi once said: “I’ve heard Al-Syâfi’i said: ‘Follow the Hadith Experts, because they are among all people who had the most righteous behavior.’
After understanding the concept of Islamic Science, we need to answer the question of why this concept needs to be revitalized. In the Great Dictionary of Bahasa Indonesia, Revitalization (revitalisasi) defined as “a process, a mean, and a deed to make alive or to reestablish…. ” Revitalizing concept of Islamic Science means to do the attempts to make the concept as a vital, essential, highly necessary and to reborn the concept within Muslim people. Moreover, in this globalization era like today. Since 2006, there were discourses regarding Islamic education which consists of 6 agendas such as:
- Completion of the Strategic Plan
- Quality assurance through national exam
- Quality assurance through improvements of qualification and certification of teachers, curriculum, and learning method.
- Quality assurance through international level education system, infrastructure improvement, ICT and Education TV based learning process
- Selection system and empowerment of students with potential intelligence and or special talents.
- Completion of education decentralization for primary and secondary lever, as well as recognition for religious education graduates.
One of the 6 fields is curriculum revitalization. One example of it is the establishment of Curriculum 2013, which was then revised after its validation in January 2015 to the end of October 2015. The revision and its consequences had been conducted based on feedback from public, experts and education facilitators which resulted in the changes within Core Competency (Kompetensi Inti/ KI) and Basic Competence (Kompetensi Dasar/ KD) both in their form and contents.
According to the writer, revision and revitalization of Curriculum 2013 was not sufficient to face the challenge of globalization. The writer has studied both KTSP 2006b and Curriculum 2013, which in fact the contents were fragile. The concept of Islamic Science was not clearly defined, and even the contents include both khurafat and syubhat (debatable information). One lacking section is that the concept of Islamic science was not included, was not explained and was not emphasized. When the concept of Islamic science was not brought into it and as long as the concept included in the curriculum was not clearly defined, the purpose of Islamic education and even the purpose of national education stated in Law No. 20 Year 2003 will be hardly accomplished. Fragile conceptualization of Islamic science will not be sufficient to boost the application of 5M Theory: Mengingat (memorizing), Memahami (understanding), Menerapkan (implementing), Menganalisa (analyzing), and Mencipta (creating) which is applied in Curriculum 2013.
Fragile conceptualization is not able to provide guidance regarding the correct and righteous knowledge. This fragile concept is also unable to protect Muslim children—which is the majority in this country—from the views which are contradicting with Islam. The three aspects of Iman (faith), Ilmu (knowledge), and Akhlak (behavior) will not be well accomplished. If the students were not be protected with clear conceptualization of Islamic knowledge, they are not well protected against more than 300 deviant sects listed in both Ministry of Religion and MUI. More to that, there are also various spreading doctrines which denounces Prophet’s colleagues and family, or doctrines to contradict the hadith, as well as khurafat (mystical) stories and syubhat.
Along with Muslim scholars such as Ismail Raji al-Faruqi who proposed the concept of “Islamization of Modern Science” which is widely known as “Science Islamization” to pursue the lag of Islam world compared to modern world as well as to respond the criticism toward modern science which is highly developed, value-free, and overwhelmingly out of transcendental basis, the writer has complemented the development with proposing revitalization of the concept of Islamic science in Islamic education institutions including Islamic boarding houses to create resistance and competitiveness.
STEPPING STONES ON REVITALIZING THE CONCEPT OF ISLAMIC SCIENCE
Recognizing the importance of revitalizing the concept of Islamic science, there are several steps to be gone through, such as followings:
- Bringing around the ulama, leaders of Islamic boarding houses (pesantren) or any Islamic education institutions, the experts of Islamic education as well as Muslim intellectuals in such a number to be able to implement this program.
- Formulating appropriate teaching materials which enables the implementation of Islamic science concept in Islamic boarding houses and other Islamic education institutions.
- Socializing the program of revitalizing Islamic science concept through different kinds of media and channels to enhance and widen the importance of revitalization of the concept which will significantly boost the efforts of science islamization. This can be conducted through varied channels such as Friday sermon (Khutbah Jum’at), conferences, seminars, as well as workshops (daurah) for intellectual guidance.
- Improving cadres from Muslim intellectuals and scholars to build their intelligence on the foundation of this basic concept of Islamic science.
- Attempting the adoption of this revitalization effort by various Islamic public organization to obtain more equally widespread.
- Attempting for this revitalization of Islamic science concept to be adopted nationally by the Ministry of Religion and the Ministry of Education and Culture so that the aim of national education which is to enact students as pious and faithful human being to Allah the Almighty, to have noble behavior, as well as mentally healthy and knowledgeable could be fully attained.
- Enhancing the spirit of revitalization to realize the purpose of building humane and Islamic civilization to be reestablished as what had been established back then during the salaf shalih era.
Thus are the stepping stones to be taken by Muslim community, particularly within Islamic boarding houses to face the challenge of globalization.
Based on the research and discussion, it can be concluded as followings:
- The concept of Islamic science consists of 6 variables, such as:
- Science is any knowledge (ma’rifat) based on dalil, or any provable knowledge, according to its field: hissiyyât is using logical empirical criteria, ‘aqliyyât is using rational criteria, and sam’iyyât (naqliyat) is using shar’i dalil.
- The ultimate source of the knowledge is Allah, through its revelation, and through His instruction to memorize, to be pious, to think (including to think about al-kaun), to read, to observe, to listen, to meditate, to imitate, to learn, to practice, to research, and to create. Therefore Allah has ordered human being to pray for plentiful useful knowledge.
- The purpose of science is to know Allah, to believe in Him, to obey Him, in order to gain happiness both in life and afterlife. The fruit of science is goodness such as faith (iman), piety, and khassyah to Allah S.W.T, humane civilization as well as strong justice.
- Different kinds of science. According to Imam Syafi’i, science is divided into 2: the science which brings happiness to both the life and afterlife which is called religious knowledge, and the other one is worldly science which naturally related to the current life only. Both of these sciences are contained in Al-Qur’an. The meaning of the term Al-‘Ilm in Al-Qur’an—which is graced by Allah, instructed to be learned and delivered, and to be leveraged by Allah—refers to Islamic science or Shar’i science, or Islamic knowledge contained in Al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah. In addition, this definition also applies to all useful knowledge for human being, as long as it is not contradicting Islam. When the science is dangerous or opposing the Islamic values, it is categorized as haram such as magic or astrology.
- Levels of science. From the point of view of usability, the highest level of science is adyân (religion), abdân (medical, including sciences and intellectual industries) and diwân (administration). The lowest level is skill/ simple art knowledge. Meanwhile, science is divided into three categories based on its law: fardhu, sunnah, fadhilah and haram.
- The concept of sanad in Islamic science was delivered to the Islam cosiety through Isnad. Sanad sourced from Allah brought by Jibril to Rasulullah PBUH, inherited by his companions who delivered it to all Muslim after them.
Literally Sanad is defined as support (mu’tamad). Terminologically, sanad means “the means to deliver to the matan” which is “The genealogy (sequence) of the narrators who quoted hadiths (in a sequential way, from one person to another) from the first source which is Rasulullah PBUH or the person closest to him who are his colleagues or Tabi’in”. On the other hand, matan means the saying (news) to be reached by the end of sanad.
- The needs of revitalization of Islamic Science
The concept of Islamic science needs to be revitalized as globalization has proven to scrape Islamic identity, damaging Islamic civilization and overpowering Islamic culture. Under this new conceptualization, the resistance of Islamic identity could be maintained, competitiveness rises, and the dream to create pious, knowledgeable and noble generation could be reached. The concept will be the foundation of religion, science, research and social aspects. With this concept, Muslim people will not be overpowered by globalization as well as not being stagnated in its own place. Instead, Islam will exists and gain more opportunities to be on top again.
To embody this revitalization of Islamic science concept, the 7 steps mentioned previously should therefore be applied.
Taking into account that the Ministry of Education and Culture has conducted the function of formulating and decision making for early childhood education program, primary education, secondary education, and society education, as well as culture management, also by keeping in mind that The Directorate General of Islamic Education bears the duty to formulate and to implement the policy and technical standardization of Islamic education under the authority of Minister of Religious Affairs of Indonesia, herewith we recommend that each of these institutions to form distinguished team to formulate, to evaluate, and to strengthen the curriculum for Islamic education (PAI) or Islamic education and character education by putting the concept of Islamic science into the curriculum. We are ready to help where necessary, as we have formulated the teaching materials entitled Chapter “Aku Cinta Ilmu”.
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